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Many types of Glucose tests exist and they can be used to estimate blood sugar levels at a given time or, over a longer period of time, to obtain average levels or to see how fast body is able to normalize changed glucose levels. Eating food for example leads to elevated blood sugar levels. In healthy people these levels quickly return to normal via increased cellular glucose uptake which is primarily mediated by increase in blood insulin levels.
Glucose tests can reveal temporary/long-term hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. These conditions may not have obvious symptoms and can damage organs in the long-term. Abnormally high/low levels, slow return to normal levels from either of these conditions and/or inability to normalize blood sugar levels means that the person being tested probably has some kind of medical condition like type 2 diabetes which is caused by cellular insensitivity to insulin. Glucose tests are thus often used to diagnose such conditions.