Hypertension Treatment- Cardiology

Doctors: General Physician

What is hypertension?

Hypertension means high blood pressure. It means that the blood applies excessive force against the walls of the blood vessels.


Generally, modification in day to day lifestyle may help reduce high blood pressure. Lifestyle modifications are basically the standard first-line treatment for hypertension. However, in some cases, medicines are recommended.  Depending on the blood pressure reading and patient’s risk of developing conditions such as heart attack or stroke, specific medicines are prescribed.

  • Life style modifications:
    • Exercise: Patients with hypertension should be engaged in a minimum 150 minutes of moderate aerobic intensity exercise or 75 minutes a week of vigorous intensity exercise. Patient is advised to exercise at least 5 days per week. Exercise can be in form of walking, cycling, swimming, or jogging.
    • Stress management: It is important to avoid stress or manage stress. This would help to control blood pressure.
    • Avoid smoking and drinking: Patient should avoid drugs, alcohol and smoking. Smoking can augment blood pressure. By avoiding smoking, there will be a reduced risk of hypertension and other diseases.
    • Eat healthy: Avoid eating junk food. Green vegetables and other healthy food should be included in daily diet.
  • Medicines: When blood pressure is not managed with lifestyle modifications alone, patient is advised to take medicines along with maintaining proper lifestyle. Patients with blood pressure greater than 130 mmHg over 80 mmHg may use medication to treat hypertension. Medicines are generally started at a lower dose. Depending on the patient’s condition. A combination of two antihypertensive drugs is generally prescribed. Antihypertensive medicines generally have very minor side effects. Various types of antihypertensive medicines are available such as:
    • Angiotensin receptor blockers
    • Calcium-channel blockers
    • Beta-blockers and alpha-blockers
    • Vasodilators
    • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
    • Diuretics such as thiazides, chlorthalidone, and indapamide
    • Central agonists
    • Peripheral adrenergic inhibitor



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About the Author:

Dr. Anand Lakhkar is a physician scientist from India. He completed his basic medical education from India and his postgraduate training in pharmacology from the United States. He has a MS degree in pharmacology from New York Medical College, a MS degree in Cancer/Neuro Pharmacology from Georgetown University and a PhD in Pharmacology from New York Medical College where he was the recipient of the Graduate Faculty Council Award for academic and research excellence.  His research area of expertise is in pulmonary hypertension, traumatic brain injury and cardiovascular pharmacology.  He has multiple publications in international peer-reviewed journals and has presented his research at at prestigious conferences.