Procedure

Kidney Tumor- Pediatrics

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When any types of cells in the body begin to grow out of control, it leads to cancer (tumor). Thus when kidney cells grow out of control, the condition of kidney tumor (cancer) develops.

What are the types of kidney tumor?

There are various types of kidney tumors include:

  • Renal cell carcinoma (such as Clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Papillary renal cell carcinoma, Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and Unclassified renal cell carcinoma
  • Other types of kidney cancers (such as Transitional cell carcinoma, Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma), and Renal sarcoma)
  • Benign (non-cancerous) kidney tumors (such as Renal adenoma, Oncocytoma, and Angiomyolipoma)

Out of above mentioned types of kidney tumors, Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for more than 90% of tumors in the kidney. There are various subtypes of RCC and out of all subtypes clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most common subtype which accounts for most cancer-related deaths.

Risk Factors:

Genetic mutations are one cause of kidney tumors. However, the exact causes of kidney tumor are not known. Following are the risk factors which can cause kidney tumors: Smoking, obesity, high blood pressure (hypertension), family history of kidney tumor, existing lymphoma, existing kidney disease at advanced stage, use of certain pain-medications for a very long duration etc.

Symptoms:

  • Extreme fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss without any reason
  • Swelling in ankles or legs
  • Anemia
  • Blood in urine
  • A lump in abdomen
  • A pain on side that doesn't go away
  • Fever lasting for weeks which isn't due to a cold or other infection

Which Speciality to Consult?

An oncologist will make the diagnosis and suggest the treatment plan.

Diagnosis:

Tests such as blood tests, urine tests, CT scan, ultrasound, MRI, Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), biopsy Renal arteriogram are used to diagnose kidney tumor.

Treatment:

Surgery is the first step of treatment. Radical nephrectomy, simple nephrectomy and partial nephrectomy are the three main types of surgeries for kidney tumors.

Radical nephrectomy is the most common type of surgery and can be performed through a small incision with a laparoscope. It removes kidneys, adrenal gland and surrounding adipose tissues. Simple nephrectomy is used to remove the kidney only. And partial nephrectomy removes the tumor in the kidney together with some tissue around it.

If surgery was not successful to remove the tumor, other treatment options include cryotherapy (use of extreme cold to kill the tumor), radiofrequency ablation (use of high-energy radio waves to "cook" the tumor) or arterial embolization (to shrink the tumor before surgery).

References:

  • https://www.cancer.org/cancer/kidney-cancer/about/what-is-kidney-cancer.html
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28276433
  • https://www.webmd.com/cancer/understanding-kidney-cancer#2-2
About the Author:

Dr. Anand Lakhkar is a physician scientist from India. He completed his basic medical education from India and his postgraduate training in pharmacology from the United States. He has a MS degree in pharmacology from New York Medical College, a MS degree in Cancer/Neuro Pharmacology from Georgetown University and a PhD in Pharmacology from New York Medical College where he was the recipient of the Graduate Faculty Council Award for academic and research excellence.  His research area of expertise is in pulmonary hypertension, traumatic brain injury and cardiovascular pharmacology.  He has multiple publications in international peer-reviewed journals and has presented his research at at prestigious conferences.

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