Pathology is the branch of medicine that deals with the analysis of bodily fluids like blood and urine to diagnose diseases and disorders. The term ‘pathos’ means experience or suffering in Greek. The practitioner of the field is called a pathologist. A lab work-up of the sample is conducted and based on the tests, the pathologist deduces the diseases/ disorder suffered by the patient. It is also the field of the general study of diseases and is a crucial branch of medicine.

Most complex jobs under pathology are the dissection of a human body to get an understanding of diseases or to obtain an understanding of the cause of death, also called autopsy. It is due to this practice, the modern medicine has grasped so much knowledge about what happens when a person is infected by bacteria, virus, parasites or fungi. Dissection of the human body has equipped us with up-close analysis of how the human body works and how diseases affect us.

The field of pathology is divided into two parts: biological research and medical practice. The first one is the study of diseases and the latter is used for diagnosis in practice. Among other sub-specialties of pathology are:

  • Anatomical pathology
  • Cytopathology
  • Dermatopathology
  • Forensic pathology
  • Histopathology
  • Neuropathology
  • Pulmonary pathology
  • Renal pathology
  • Surgical pathology
  • Clinical pathology
  • Hematopathology
  • Immunopathology
  • Radiation pathology
  • Molecular pathology
  • Oral and maxillofacial pathology
  • Psychopathology

A number of cases in pathology belong to cancer. Pathology uses a number of diagnostic imaging, if not all of them. MRI, PET scans, medical photography, functional imaging, nuclear medicine all come under pathology.

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